Pinos Dentários

 

Você sabia que um dente “perdido” que esteja parcial ou totalmente danificado, não é obrigatoriamente um caso de um implante dentário? Isso mesmo! Muitas vezes é possível reconstruir um dente (veja mais sobre restaurações) com resina, mas em situações de danos mais severos, ou após um tratamento de canal é preciso substituir este dente por uma coroa em porcelana (veja mais sobre coroas sem metal). Sempre que se fala em substituir um dente, a grande maioria das pessoas já pensa em um implante dentário, porém com os pinos dentários também é possível receber este novo dente sem a necessidade de um implante.

 

Esta é sem dúvidas uma ótima notícia, afinal, um implante dentário é um tratamento dispendioso, que exige um considerável investimento de tempo e dinheiro. Além disso, o implante é considerado uma cirurgia, e como em qualquer procedimento cirúrgico, há dificuldades e cuidados especiais de pós-operatório.

 

Evitar um implante dentário é a principal vantagem de um pino dentário, porém, antes de falarmos mais sobre esta solução é preciso que você entenda o que é o pino dentário e o próprio implante dentário. Para isto, escalamos o Dr. Paulo Cruz, implantodontista que faz parte da equipe de Dentistas da Clínica Adriano Abreu. Veja o vídeo abaixo:

 

Muitas pessoas que ainda não entraram no mundo da odontologia, imaginam erroneamente que o implante dentário é o dente produzido em porcelana, quando na verdade, um implante dentário é um parafuso que serve como uma espécie de raiz artificial do dente que será produzido em laboratório. Então, por mais óbvio que possa parecer, em casos de perda dentária, vale a pena relembrar: o implante dentário é uma raiz artificial, e a coroa dentária é o dente produzido no laboratório de prótese que substituirá o dente perdido.

 

Entendido tudo isso, ficamos mais a vontade para explicar o que é um pino dentário, e como este pino pode evitar uma cirurgia de implante dentário. Vamos lá? Se você sofreu uma forte avaria em seu dente, seja fratura ou lesão por cárie , é possível que a raiz deste dente ainda esteja saudável. Neste caso, a própria raiz de seu dente perdido poderá dar sustentação ao novo dente produzido em porcelana. Ou seja, o dente pode ter sido perdido, mas a raiz deste dente não, e um novo dente em porcelana produzido em laboratório pode ser “sustentado” por esta raiz do dente natural preservada. Se na pior da hipóteses, além do dente, a raiz também for perdida, aí sim será necessário um implante dentário.

 

Um implante dentário é uma espécie de raiz artificial para dar sustentação ao novo dente em porcelana. Trata-se de um parafuso de titânio que é implantado aos ossos das mandíbulas no lugar da raiz do dente perdido. Porém, se esta raiz manteve-se preservada e em condições de dar sustentação à prótese, não há necessidade deste implante! É aí que o pino dentário entra em ação!

 

O pino dentário é o elo de ligação entre a raiz preservado do dente natural e o novo dente em porcelana produzido no laboratório de prótese. Simples assim. Simples de se explicar, mas bastante trabalhoso para o dentista, o pino dentário é uma solução terapêutica para ter de volta a oportunidade de sorrir, falar e mastigar alimentos normalmente, e o melhor, sem os temidos e dispendiosos implantes dentários.

 

Como tudo na odontologia, os pinos dentários passaram por evoluções. Até alguns anos atrás, a maioria dos pinos utilizados eram metálicos, mas hoje, os pinos mais modernos são produzidos em fibra de vidro, e por serem brancos e mais discretos, recebem também o nome Pinos Estéticos. Enquanto os pinos de fibra de vidro caem nas graças dos dentistas e cada vez mais ganham espaço, os pinos metálicos já entram em desuso, pois possuem algumas desvantagens severas, como:

 

  • Envolvem risco de fratura da raiz do dente: antigamente, apenas os pinos metálicos se apresentavam como única opção para unir a raiz ao novo dente produzido em laboratório. Neste período, muitos dentistas tinham a falsa impressão que os pinos metálicos, por serem duros, reforçavam a preservação da raiz do dente, quando na verdade era o contrário! Os pinos metálicos fragilizam esta raiz e em casos de acidentes por exemplo, podem ser “fatais” para a raiz, pois em um choque muito forte sobre o dente, em uma queda por exemplo, a dureza do pino metálico pode fazer uma espécie de alavanca, fraturando a raiz, ou simplesmente transferindo toda a energia do impacto para a raiz, provocando danos irreversíveis.
  • Dificuldade de adesão: como já conversamos, o pino é o elo de ligação entre a raiz preservada e o novo dente, mas é preciso que um material adesivo dê a fixação e a solidez dessa união. A superfície metálica não permite uma adesão deste material adesivo tão eficiente quantos os pinos de fibra de vidro, ou seja, há uma dificuldade de adesão entre o novo dente e o pino metálico. Esta dificuldade pode fazer você não desejar um pino metálico por duas razões. A primeira por conta da dificuldade do dentista em promover esta adesão, seu tratamento pode durar mais e exigir mais tempo sentado na cadeira do dentista. A segunda razão é por conta do risco muito maior deste dente se soltar, e uma vez caindo o novo dente, além do constrangimento, mais visitas ao dentista serão necessárias.
  • Falta de naturalidade dos resultados: o objetivo de todo trabalho reabilitador em odontologia estética é alcançar resultados naturais, e evitar que o tratamento tenha um aspecto artificial é tão ou mais importante que a própria estética. No caso dos pinos metálicos, por serem mais escuros, pode ocorrer que eles sejam visíveis, mesmo por baixo do novo dente. Por isso, o dentista precisa mascarar com o próprio material adesivo este pino, o que nem sempre é plenamente possível. Portanto, se o pino está aparente, por menos que seja, irá comprometer o aspecto natural do resultado final.
  • Escurecimento próximo à raiz do dente: certamente uma das maiores desvantagens do pino metálico, a oxidação do metal pode fazer que com o tempo, ocorra o escurecimento da região próxima a raiz do dente, comprometendo seriamente a estética do dente e do sorriso como um todo.

 

Como já foi repetidamente exposto, os pinos dentários são uma excelente opção para quem perdeu um dente, mas quer evitar um implante dentário, e o pino de estético chegou para ficar, superando as dificuldades de seu antecessor, o pino metálico, para devolver as pessoas a possibilidade de sorrir.

 

 

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